The cooling process of automobiles serves as a crucial technology as it directly or indirectly influences the engine’s performance, vehicle aerodynamics, passenger comfort and maintenance, fuel economy, and life span of other components in vehicles, etc. Owing to high heat of dissipation, large radiators are now commonly found which finally result into supplementary rise in viscosity and cause a rise in fuel consumption. Therefore, coolant is an important part of engine’s system which aids to cope up with all these challenges faced by the heavy automobile industries.
Coolant along with coolant additives helps in providing protection to the engines from freezing and to the other parts as well as components of the vehicles against corrosion. It aids in sustaining the overall heat balance by effectively discarding heat energy. In an automobile only one-third energy is required and is termed as useful energy and an extra one-third energy is exhausted away as waste energy which is generally adsorbed by the coolant for its removal, transported to the radiator, and finally dissipated in to the environment. Thus, coolant aids in ensuring an effective performance of the engine in the near future.
A coolant or antifreeze formulation requires some coolant additives as well to enhance the utilization of the product. These additives give an additional edge to the benefits of using the product. The coolant additives include Corrosion Inhibitors, Supplemental coolant additive, Thickener or viscosity improver, Antifoam or Defoamer, Softening agent, preservative, fragrance, etc.
The corrosion inhibitor additive is added to the antifreeze formulation for providing protection to system metals from corrosion. It serves as a multi metal corrosion inhibitor and prevents corrosion in multiple ways. The supplemental coolant additives are organic compounds based on nitrite and borate corrosion inhibitors with scale preventing dispersants that help in extending the life of the coolant and performance of the engine. The coolant thickener, when added to the formulation, aids in enhancing the cosmetic look of the fluid by increasing the lubricity value and the viscosity. An antifoaming agent must be added to the formulation to prevent bubbling and boiling of coolant, thereby preventing overheating and engine failure. Coolant softening agent is added to the formulation to render the coolant hard water tolerant and on the other hand the added preservative aids in preventing biological fouling.